Dietary sugar in the production of hyperglyceridemia. For many decades, health officials encouraged Americans to reduce their fat intake, which led many people to consume low-fat, high-sugar foods that some experts now blame for fueling the obesity crisis. We should carefully review the reports, probably with a committee of nutrition specialists; see what weak points there are in the experimentation, and replicate the studies with appropriate corrections. The review discounted RCTs that had shown that substituting starch for sucrose had a large effect on improving serum triglyceride levels and implied that only studies that had used serum cholesterol level as a biomarker of CHD risk should be used to compare the efficacy of sucrose interventions to fat interventions see eTable 4 in the Supplement. But in the 21st century, the grip of sugar is stronger than comparable scourges like tobacco, or even alcohol. Fortnite Game of Thrones Books. Sugar Association. Quantitative effects of dietary fat on serum cholesterol in man. American children eat three times as much added sugar as they should. Nestle M.
Its main output — apart from commercial profits — is a global public health crisis, which has been centuries in the making. The obesity epidemic — along with related diseases including cancer, dementia, heart disease and diabetes — has spread across every nation where sugar-based carbohydrates have come to dominate to the food economy. So at this time, it pays to step back and consider the ancient origins of sugar, to understand how it has grown to present an imminent threat to our landscapes, our societies and our health. Human physiology evolved on a diet containing very little sugar and virtually no refined carbohydrate. In fact, sugar probably entered into our diets by accident. Researchers are currently hunting for early evidence of sugarcane cultivation at the Kuk Swamp in Papua New Guinea, where the domestication of related crops such as taro and banana dates back to approximately 8,BC. The crop spread around the Eastern Pacific and Indian Oceans around 3, years ago, carried by Austronesian and Polynesian seafarers. The first chemically refined sugar appeared on the scene in India about 2, years ago. From there, the technique spread east towards China, and west towards Persia and the early Islamic worlds, eventually reaching the Mediterranean in the 13th century. Cyprus and Sicily became important centres for sugar production. Throughout the Middle Ages, it was considered a rare and expensive spice, rather than an everyday condiment.
About 50 years ago, the sugar industry stopped funding research that began to show something they wanted to hide : that eating lots of sugar is linked to heart disease. Researchers at the University of California, San Francisco, recently analyzed historical documents regarding a rat study called Project that was launched in Pover at the University of Birmingham. When the preliminary findings from that study began to show that eating lots of sugar might be associated with heart disease, and even bladder cancer, the ISRF pulled the plug on the research. Without additional funding, the study was terminated and the results were never published, according to a study published today in PLOS Biology. Last year, based on a review of internal industry documents, the same group of UCSF researchers showed that in the s, ISRF — then known as the Sugar Research Foundation — also paid Harvard scientists to obscure the relationship between sugar and heart disease, pushing them to blame saturated fats instead. It helped to derail this issue for quite a long time. But nutrition science is sometimes influenced by industry groups that have a stake in the results: in , The New York Times reported that Coca-Cola had paid scientists to distract the public from the connection between sugary drinks and obesity. The study in question investigated the relationship between sugars and certain blood fats called triglycerides, which increase the risk of heart disease. The preliminary results from the research, called Project , suggested that rats on a high-sugar diet, instead of a starch diet, had higher levels of triglycerides.