Author contributions: P. Reviewers: F. Here, we present evidence that hepatic mitochondrial fluxes and redox state are markedly altered during ketogenic diet-induced reversal of NAFLD in humans. Ketogenic diet for 6 d markedly decreased liver fat content and hepatic insulin resistance. These changes were associated with increased net hydrolysis of liver triglycerides and decreased endogenous glucose production and serum insulin concentrations. Partitioning of fatty acids toward ketogenesis increased, which was associated with increased hepatic mitochondrial redox state and decreased hepatic citrate synthase flux. These data demonstrate heretofore undescribed adaptations underlying the reversal of NAFLD by ketogenic diet and highlight hepatic mitochondrial fluxes and redox state as potential treatment targets in NAFLD.
Long-term outcomes of children treated with the ketogenic diet in the past. It is possible, however, that these people could get better results if they stay with the diet longer. The participants came to the clinical research center after an overnight fast.
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When the liver attempts to repair these damaged cells, scar tissue forms, resulting in a condition called fibrosis. NAFLD has been linked to increased risk of heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Not everyone who consumes a lot of refined carbs and gets little exercise will end up developing NAFLD. So who is most likely to get it? In blood tests, in addition to high triglycerides and insulin levels, certain liver enzymes are elevated, especially GGT and ALT. An ultrasound or CT scan will show excess fat or other changes in the liver. However, in at least one study, waist size alone was found to similarly predict this risk. Because many people with NAFLD are overweight, they often receive recommendations to eat low-calorie or low-fat diets. However, besides being difficult to stick with long term, these diets may do little to address the root causes of NAFLD.